For each class value (or pseudo-class or attribute selector), apply 0,0,1,0 points. If there is a tie, then the compiler overrides the prior style, so whichever was executed last breaks the tie. Specificity is only based on the matching rules which are composed of CSS selectors of different sorts. This is because the two declarations have equal selector type counts, but the html h1 selector is declared last. Knowing how CSS specificity works is a fundamental skill. It automatically wins (1,0,0,0 points) 2. We are using this time to move to our new platform (https://hacks.mozilla.org/2020/10/mdn-web-docs-evolves-lowdown-on-the-upcoming-new-platform/). This weight defines which properties will be applied to an element when there are conflicting rules. CSS Specificity: The Class Rule. elements, although you think they should. But selectors placed into the pseudo-class count as normal selectors when determining the count of selector types. You can give every ID selector (“#whatever”) a value of 100, every class selector (“.whatever”) a value of 10 and every HTML selector (“whatever”) a value of 1. I think that’s a shame because there is a vastly more effective mental model I’ve found for explaining CSS Cascading. There are four In a specificity tie, the last rule defined wins. Since 1 < 101 < 1000, the third rule (C) has a greater level of Specificity is based on the matching rules which are composed of different sorts of CSS selectors. What about the ‘specifics’? element names and pseudo-elements, such as h1, div, :before and :after. Think of specificity as a score/rank that determines which style declarations Specificity Calculator: An interactive website to test and understand your own CSS rules -. ), For more information, visit: "Specificity" in "Cascade and inheritance", you can also visit: https://specifishity.com. Specificity is a method of conflict resolution within the cascade. Selectors have different values of importance (or specificity). selector - The embedded style sheet is closer to the element to be styled. W3C - 6 Assigning property values, Cascading, and Inheritance -- 6.4.2 !important rules; Calculating Selector Specificity. As per CSS rules, directly targeted elements will always take precedence over rules which an element inherits from its ancestor. Every selector has its place in the specificity hierarchy. While using W3Schools, you agree to have read and accepted our. The result of CSS Specificity calculation takes the form of four comma-separated values a,b,c,dwhere the values in column “a” are the most important and those in column “d” are least important. - Look at the following three code lines: the first rule is more specific than the other two, and will be applied. categories which define the specificity level of a selector: Inline styles - An inline style is attached directly to the element to be styled. Specificity is the means by which browsers decide which CSS property values are the most relevant to an element and, therefore, will be applied. Without !important, the first rule will have more specificity and will win over the second rule. For each element reference, apply 0,0,0,1 point. MDN will be in maintenance mode, Monday December 14, from 7:00 AM until no later than 5:00 PM Pacific Time (in UTC, Monday December 14, 3:00 PM until Tuesday December 15, 1:00 AM). What is CSS Specificity? So specificity of the above example becomes 0-1-3 -> 13 LI.red.level {} specificity = 21 In the example above, we don't have any ID attribute, so the value of x=0;since we have two other attribute names in the selector so value of y=2; and we have one element name in … Now, we will look at how specificity is calculated if we are applying multiple styles to the same element. By Bill Mei. Both inline styles and !important are considered very bad practice, but sometimes you need the latter to override the former. Specificity is a weight that is applied to a given CSS declaration, determined by the number of each selector type in the matching selector. Using !important, however, is bad practice and should be avoided because it makes debugging more difficult by breaking the natural cascading in your stylesheets. The cascade, and the closely-related concept of specificity, are mechanisms that control whic… CSS rules often conflict with one another. Inherited values also have The specificity of A is 0,0,0,1 (one element), the specificity of B is 0,1,0,1 (one ID reference point and one element), the specificity value of C is 1,0,0,0, since it is an inline styling. Styles for a directly targeted element will always take precedence over inherited styles, regardless of the specificity of the inherited rule. The following list of selector types increases by specificity: Universal selector (*), combinators (+, >, ~, ' ', ||) and negation pseudo-class (:not()) have no effect on specificity. Finally, if declarations have the same importance, source, and specificity, sort them by the order they are specified in the CSS. Examples might be simplified to improve reading and learning. Simple put, if two CSS selectors apply to the same element, the one with higher specifity is used. CALCULATING A SELECTOR SPECIFICITY. # First lets have a look at a definition from Mozilla Developer Network: Specificity is the means by which a browser decides which CSS property values are the most relevant to an element and therefore will be applied. Tutorials, references, and examples are constantly reviewed to avoid errors, but we cannot warrant full correctness of all content. In this case, the browser needs a way to identify the style to be applied to the matching element, and CSS specificity is the way of doing it. This is because it matches the same element but the ID selector has a higher specificity. The last declaration wins. 101 (one ID reference and one element)The specificity of C is 1000 (inline styling). Specificity is the means by which browsers decide which CSS property values are the most relevant to an element and, therefore, will be applied. When two or more styles target a particular element, the style with the highest specificity is the one that gets applied. By indicating one or more elements before the element you're selecting, the rule becomes more specific and gets higher priority: No matter the order, text will be green because that rule is most specific. The specificity of A is 1 (one element)The specificity of B is IDs - An ID is a unique identifier for the page elements, such as CSS Specificity. specific! In the following case, the selector *[id="foo"] counts as an attribute selector for the purpose of determining the selector's specificity, even though it selects an ID. 1. Specificity Calculator isn’t a CSS validator. Get the latest and greatest from MDN delivered straight to your inbox. Here is a look of most to least specificity depending on the selectors: Additional Information On Specificity : Additional Information on Specificity. In fact, this is what we want. CSS Reference CSS Reference CSS Browser Support CSS Selectors CSS Functions CSS Reference Aural CSS Web Safe Fonts CSS Font Fallbacks CSS Animatable CSS Units CSS PX-EM Converter CSS Colors CSS Color Values CSS Default Values CSS Entities Each individual CSS Selector has its own specificity value. Specificity is a weight that is applied to a given CSS declaration, determined by the number of each selector type in the matching selector. If the element has inline styling, add “1” point to column “a”. In order to determine which CSS rule to apply to the anchor tag, the browser will calculate the specificity value and check which one is the highest. Scott. If you want to report an error, or if you want to make a suggestion, do not hesitate to send us an e-mail: W3Schools is optimized for learning and training. Sign in to enjoy the benefits of an MDN account. Use more specific rules. As a nonsense special case for (2), duplicate simple selectors to increase specificity when you have nothing more to specify. A) Add another CSS rule with !important, and either give the selector a higher specificity (adding a tag, id or class to the selector), or add a CSS rule with the same selector at a later point than the existing one. The trick is understanding how conflicting rules will apply. Only the selector inside the :not() pseudo-class (negation pseudo-class) is counted. This works because in a specificity tie, the last rule defined wins. element, the browser follows some rules to determine which one is Your global CSS file that sets visual aspects of your site globally may be overwritten by inline styles defined directly on individual elements. Specificity is based on the form of a selector. Web poster displays CSS specificity … The proximity of an element to other elements that are referenced in a given selector has no impact on specificity. As per the documentation Specificity is the logic by which the browser decides which CSS property values are the most relevant to an element incase there are two or more conflicting CSS rules that point to the same element and which will be applied. The specificity-adjustment pseudo-class :where() always has its specificity replaced with zero. This is an experimental technologyCheck the Browser compatibility table carefully before using this in production. Since 0001 = 1 < 0101 = 101 < 1000, Start at 0, add 1000 for style For each class value (or pseudo-class or attribute selector), add “1” point to column “c”– (0,0,1,0 points… Every selector in a sequence increases the sequence's overall specificity. Cascading is an important part of Cascading Stylesheets, but it’s often explained poorly and online tutorials lead to more confusion than clarity. What is specificity? (The selectors declared inside :not() do, however. For each ID value, add “1” point to column “b”– (0,1,0,0 points) 3. If you enter invalid selectors it will return incorrect results. Specificity only applies when the same element is targeted by multiple declarations. attribute, add 100 for each ID, add 10 for each attribute, class or Simply put, if two CSS selectors apply to the same element, the one with higher specificity is used. pseudo-class, add 1 for each element name or pseudo-element. So in the When an important rule is used on a style declaration, this declaration overrides any other declarations. When two or more selectors have equal specificity value, then … Specificity is the weight assigned to a given CSS declaration and it is determined by the number of each selector type in the matching selector. In order to determine which CSS rule to apply to the anchor tag, the browser will calculate the specificity value and check which one is the highest. It will give you a deeper understanding of how CSS property values are resolved when two or more style rules match the same set of HTML elements. © 2005-2020 Mozilla and individual contributors. If the same rule is written twice into the external style sheet, then CSS Specificity explained According to MDN, Specificity is the means by which browsers decide which CSS property values are the most relevant to an element and, therefore, will be applied. Specificity is the means by which browsers decide which CSS property values are the most relevant to an element and, therefore, will be applied. CSS specificity assigns a numerical representation of a selector in order to compare in case there are style conflicts. In this case, the first rule will be applied. The actual specificity of a group of nested selectors takes some calculating. Contextual selectors are more specific than a single element Inline Styles get 1000 points 2. Example: Specificity is calculated in a very particular way, based on the values of 4 distinct categories. The Definitive Guide to CSS Cascading and Specificity. Equal specificity: the latest rule counts - following situation. For a style to be applied to a particular element, the developer has to abide by the rules, so that the browser knows how to apply the style. a specificity of 0. This is because the h1 selector targets the element specifically, but the green selector is only inherited from its parent. Specificity is based on the matching rules which are composed of different sorts of CSS selectors.. How is specificity calculated? In this case, the first selector has a higher specificity value therefore, the browser will use its declarations to apply to the anchor tag. The CSS specificity is important only when various selectors are affecting the same element. Classes, attributes, and pseudo-classes get 10 points 4. A selector’s specificity is calculated as follows: 1. How do you make awesome paragraphs always turn red, even ones inside #someElement? the lower rule in the style sheet is closer to the element to be styled, and therefore will be applied: ID selectors have a higher specificity than attribute selectors Elements and psuedo-elements get 1 point each For a visual explanation, see cssspecificity.com. A class selector beats any number of element selectors - a class selector such as .intro beats h1, p, div, etc: The universal selector and inherited values have a specificity of 0 - *,