When theoretical and practical study are indicated, the corresponding credit hours are typically shown as two hyphenated digits within parentheses, for example, “4 (3-1).”. The credit system stipulated by the HEC and used by most HEIs is a U.S.-style system. Programs may include a thesis or coursework only. While enrollment ratios in some major cities are close to universal, Pakistan has  22.7 million out-of-school children (OOSC), as mentioned earlier. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Civics has recently been introduced in school curricula in place of Islamiyat for religious minority populations. The recent population of Pakistan is 186 millions. The exams are conducted by one of the Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE). These qualifications provide graduates access not only to specialized employment but also to tertiary education programs, given that the curricula typically include the compulsory subjects of the national upper-secondary curriculum. As noted in a recent HEC-sponsored study, “science subjects … are avoided by colleges because there is need of science laboratories to run those programs. Funding and support from other countries, including Saudi Arabia and Iran, also play a role. The delivery of education services in Pakistan is severely impacted by economic, political and security challenges that the country has been facing for some years. The Allama Iqbal Open University has developed a 24-unit course to orientate primary school teachers in the philosophy and content of new curricula provided for in the new education policy of Pakistan. However, due to porous borders and a lack of adequate infrastructure/resources to register foreigners over the … Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Degree & above comprises fourteen or more years of education. In Pakistan, more than 50 million people aged above 10 years are illiterate while the literacy rate is 58%. There are more young people in Pakistan today than at any point in its history, and it has one of the world’s largest youth populations with 64 percent of Pakistanis now under the age of 30. This move, while placing decision-making and funding into the hands of those with a greater understanding of local needs, has also created a fragmented system that lacks coordination and has produced uneven educational outcomes in different provinces. PIP: The scope of formal population education in Pakistan covers the entire academic system, beginning from the primary level to the university and professional colleges. Entry to the practice of law requires the completion of a five-year Bachelor of Laws (LLB) program, followed by a period of practical training and passing an examination conducted by one of Pakistan’s provincial Bar Councils. Pakistan has taken in vast numbers of refugees from war-torn Afghanistan over the past decades and is still hosting some 2.4 million Afghan refugees. In these fields, the Bachelor of Eastern Medicine and Surgery is awarded upon completion of a five-year program and one-year clinical internship recognized by the National Council for Tibb. Depending on the location and predominantly in rural areas, regional languages are used as well, particularly in elementary education. Given that Pakistan is witnessing the largest population growth of youth in its history, with two-thirds of the population projected to be below the age of 30 for the next three decades, TVET is seen as perhaps the most critical education sector to address unemployment and develop a workforce capable of driving economic development. Despite this growth, the TVET sector accommodates less than 15 percent of the nearly three million young people who enter the job market each year. In medicine, those completing a specialization are awarded the university degree of Doctor of Medicine and become members of the College of Physicians and Surgeons. Education in Pakistan. Most public universities, by contrast, are large multi-faculty research institutions that offer a full range of academic programs, including PhD programs, which are almost exclusively offered by public DAIs. It’s crucial to understand that huge socioeconomic disparities exist in Pakistan not only between rural and urban regions, but also between the country’s diverse provinces. The elementary curriculum typically includes Urdu, English, regional languages, mathematics, science, social studies, and Islamiyat. Completion of the DAE, for example, enables students to enter directly into applicable Bachelor of Technology programs. In general, Pakistani students have increasingly diversified their international study destinations in recent years. Private institutions offer fewer graduate programs than public HEIs, and many don’t engage in academic research activities. Pakistan’s primary education school has been characterized as one of the most underdeveloped programs. Projects & Operations. The data of the UNESCO Institute Statistics often provides the most reliable point of reference for comparison since it is compiled according to one standard method. There is major inequality based on geography, gender, ethnicity, disability and faith and a significant modern slavery problem amongst the poor, minorities, women and children. To modernize research in Pakistan and raise the qualifications profile of university faculty, the government supports this development with scholarship programs of considerable scale, considering Pakistan’s fiscal constraints. A minimum grade average of 50 percent or above (second division pass) is required by most institutions, but the threshold in more competitive disciplines like engineering and medicine is usually higher (at least 60 percent). General Aims 4. Analysis of education system in Pakistan Government funding for public higher education, which accounts for about 70 percent of operating costs, is vastly insufficient, especially in light of Pakistan’s debt crisis and recent austerity budgets. Pakistan’s population is set to grow by 40 million people in the next 15 years and the economy needs to grow by more than 7% a year to create jobs for this growing young population. Note that academic transcripts may still indicate percentage marks, as used under the old system (see below), but the actual grade ranges are different. List of Education Project Topics & Materials PDF & Doc. The traditional English-speaking international study destinations, Australia and the U.S., are currently the top choices among Pakistani degree-seeking students, as per UNESCO statistics. Crucially, Pakistan devotes comparatively few resources to education and trails regional countries like India or Nepal in education spending. Textbooks in Pakistan were written in 1975 following the concepts and guidelines provided in the new curricula. In Canada, for instance, the number of Pakistani students has doubled over the past decade, if on a relatively small scale (4,050 students in 2019). An analytical study of higher education of Pakistan, 2011) Current education system in Pakistan is also not satisfactory. While most of these problems are worse at the elementary level, where most of Pakistan’s students are enrolled, they have ripple effects for the entire education system and depress enrollment rates at all levels. It should be noted, however, that considerable variations in curricula may exist between jurisdictions, especially since the administration of the school system devolved from the federal government to the provinces in 2010. Studying abroad can open immigration pathways in countries like Australia or Canada, while a foreign degree gives those that return a competitive edge on the Pakistani labor market. Global Corruption Report: Education. These plans are partially driven by international pressure and concerns about political radicalization (see the section on madrasah education below). Increase in population will also increase the problems. That said, most international madrasah students come from neighboring Afghanistan as well. Introduction. It should be noted, however, that the future growth potential of private higher education in Pakistan is limited by what the market is able to bear, particularly with regard to expensive higher quality institutions, many of which require tuition fees that are out of reach for most of Pakistan’s population. Due to a high increase in the population, Pakistan is facing serious challenges like shortage of water, electricity, jobs infrastructure, public transportation, health, education law and order, and other social issues are prevailing in the society. This project won a merit prize in the World Cerebral Palsy awards 2018 for the Jamaica pilot. To promote a culture of continual quality improvement, the HEC introduced a ranking system that rates HEIs on a scale from W (highest) to X, Y, and Z (lowest) based on criteria like QA mechanisms, teaching quality, or research output. A passing score on the SSC examinations is required to progress to higher secondary education, which is two years in duration (grades 11 and 12) and provided by upper-secondary schools or so-called intermediate colleges, most of them public institutions. The Muslim-majority country was established in its current form after the partition of former British India into India and Pakistan in 1947, and the subsequent secession of Bangladesh, formerly known as East Pakistan, in 1971. According to the Open Doors data of the Institute of International Education, Pakistan sent 7,957 students to the U.S. in 2018/19, an increase of 5.6 percent over the previous year, making it the 22nd most important sending country. According to UNESCO, the overall elementary NER in Pakistan stood at only 68 percent in 2018. While some variations in structure exist, the HEC has recently put forth overall guidelines for the implementation of a uniform semester system for HEIs. As a result, the system is said to be rife with corruption, plagiarism, and fabricated research, with many publications allegedly produced for purely material gains. Building Support for Adolescent Sexuality and Reproductive Health Education and Responding to Resistance in Conservative Contexts: Cases From Pakistan. Hence 31% educational institutes are run by private sector while 69% are public institutes. 2, February 2015, pp.49 -56.Â. Certification in medical specialties requires another three to five years of clinical studies, depending on the specialty. The government initiated action in 1980 to integrate population education in the formal and nonformal education sectors. Pakistan has one of the largest youth population’s in the world. Titles of qualifications must also include the type (certificate or diploma) and the occupation (for example, National Vocational Certificate Level 1 in Hospitality). They lead to the award of the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degree and Bachelor of Dental Surgery, respectively. Holders of a Master of Law (LLM) degree can practice and are exempt from the period of training and examination. China may, in fact, now host the largest number of Pakistani international students worldwide. However, while these rankings are designed to be an annual ongoing process, their results were last made available to the public in 2015. While assistant, associate, and full professors must formally have a PhD, entry-level lecturers in most academic disciplines except engineering, information technology, computer science, medical sciences, law, and studio arts and design can teach with just a master’s degree (18 years of total education). While Pakistan had a comparatively centralized system of government throughout much of its history, there has been a trend toward decentralization since the early 2000s, notably in education. The HEC recommends the use of the following U.S.-style grading scale which has been adopted, with some variations, by a majority of HEIs in Pakistan. Pakistan is a federation composed of four provinces, the capital territory of Islamabad and the two autonomous regions of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan.  |  Medical and dental programs are offered by dedicated medical and dental colleges. The middle school curriculum features the same subjects as the elementary curriculum, but additional languages like Arabic or Persian may be introduced. Education from The World Bank: Data. Pakistan's estimated population (excluding Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan) in 2017 was 207,774,520 according to the 2017 Census of Pakistan. In Pakistan, where nearly 22.5 million children are out of school, increasing access to education opportunities for out-of-school children is a priority. This article includes data reported by multiple agencies. The traditional degree system was mostly structured into two-year bachelor’s programs (pass degree) followed by a two-year master’s degree (2+2), or more specialized three-year bachelor’s programs (honors degrees) followed by a one-year master’s degree (3+1). Routledge. It offers an opportunity to enhance partnerships with development-oriented agencies and to facilitate donor … The broad strategies for implementation cover the following areas: identification of the target group; instructional strategies; and federal and provincial implementation strategies. Increasing numbers of Pakistani students are interested in learning Chinese. In dentistry this requirement results in the award of the Master of Dental Surgery degree. This initiative is improving education in Pakistan. Scholarship recipients are often required to return home after graduation. In 2017, for instance, four institutions have been banned from admitting students entirely, while another 13 had their distance learning MPhil and PhD programs suspended. NLM It is expected that by 2030 Pakistan’s population will exceed 242 million. The University of the Punjab has five campuses, more than 70 departments, and about 46,000 on-campus students. Following are short profiles of the new credit system, the most common grading scale, and the primary benchmark credentials of the current system. About 68 percent of students at the lower-secondary level and 88 percent at the upper-secondary level attended public schools in 2017. If we go deep into the […] Thailand [Population education in countries of the region]. Most typically, this is an internal assessment devised by the institution, but it’s increasingly common for institutions to rely on external tests, such as the National Aptitude Test conducted by Pakistan’s National Testing Service. 2015. Relying on affiliated colleges to teach degree programs affords universities a comparatively easy and cost-effective way to scale up capacity, especially in remote areas. total population) of Pakistan. The number of affiliated colleges in Pakistan has consequently mushroomed since the 1990s. HHS Research reveals co-ordination and collaboration strengths and weaknesses in population education. Gender disparities are rampant with boys outnumbering girls at every stage of education. One credit hour of laboratory or practical work requires three contact hours per week throughout the semester. Here again the results are devastating, particularly for girls, who are frequently kept at home to cook and do housework so that both parents can work to keep the family afloat. Factors like declining economic growth rates, high levels of public debt, inflation, and budget shortfalls make it unlikely that this situation will improve in the near term and have, in fact, resulted in heavy-handed austerity in the education sector and elsewhere. Pakistan has almost 5.5 million children that are out of school, the second highest number in the world only after Nigeria. Beyond its capacity shortages, the TVET sector has historically been marred by a lack of national coordination, quality problems, and outdated curricula that fail to adequately serve the needs of the labor market. The language of instruction in higher education is mostly English, but some programs and institutions teach in Urdu. The National Committee on Population Education prepared a curriculum for the training of primary, middle, and lower secondary school teachers which was used in training the master trainers. A relatively new phenomenon is the establishment of a system of community colleges. 1991;(35):7-11. The truth is that, at the time of independence Pakistan had only one university, the University of Punjab. But an important related factor here is that that college cohort has been decreasing for some time as a percentage of total global population. Bachelor’s degree (four years, 124–136 credits) or a combined 16 years of education. If Pakistan manages to educate and skill this surging youth population, it could harness a tremendous youth dividend that could help to fuel the country’s economic growth and modernization. While UNESCO does not report data for China, and Chinese government figures are difficult to compare,[1] Pakistan is currently the third-largest sending country to China with 28,000 students, per Chinese statistics. Pakistan’s largest public university in terms of enrollments, and simultaneously one of the largest universities in the world, is Allama Iqbal Open University, an open distance education provider with 1.4 million students. In 1998, this figure stood at 32.5 percent. Other estimates, based on a modified definition of urban settlements, suggest that the ratio of urban to rural population could be 40.5 percent and even higher. In relative terms, immigrants represent 1.7 per cent of the total population of Pakistan (UNDESA, 2017). Most common nomenclature used for name of credentials is Bachelor of (field of study), Five-year programs are offered in architecture, dentistry, homeopathy, law, medicine, pharmacy, veterinary science, and traditional systems of medicine (Unani, Ayurveda, and homeopathic medicine)*. General as well as specific behavioral objectives for population education were developed by the National Committee on Population Education. CASE STUDY 1: EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN Database Theory and Measuring Outcomes This case study is based on “Report Cards: The Impact of Providing School and Child Test-scores on Educational Markets”, by Tahir Andrabi, Jishnu Das, and Asim Ijaz Khwaja J-PAL thanks the authors for allowing us to use their paper as a teaching tool. Some private institutions may also accept foreign tests, such as the U.S.-based SAT. Day by day, the population of Pakistan is increasing. The NVQF is currently in development but will eventually span eight levels of qualifications as shown below. Since upper-secondary education programs are offered in different streams, an HSSC in a stream related to the intended major is a typical requirement as well. Within the framework of the Solutions Strategy in Pakistan, the portfolio of proposed projects is designed around the interlinked sectors of education, health and livelihoods. Get National Diploma ND, Higher National Diploma (HND), Undergraduate, Masters & PhD Research Works Today, Pakistan’s national regulations formally stipulate a four-year bachelor’s degree in education or its equivalent as the minimum requirement to teach at Pakistani schools, from elementary through higher secondary levels. Additionally, applicants may have to sit for admission tests or interviews, especially at top-tier institutions. National Vocational and Technical Training Commission (NAVTTC), Education in the United States of America, https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/32225370.pdf, https://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/publication/global_corruption_report_education, Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC); Intermediate Certificate; A Levels or other equivalent qualification, Awarded in primarily applied fields of study, Bachelor’s degree programs (with exemptions/transfer credit) in a related field of study. Variable. It should be pointed out, however, that it only includes students enrolled in tertiary degree programs. In comparison with academic institutions in other Asian countries, Pakistani universities are not very well-represented in standard international university rankings. The 18th Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, approved in 2010, devolved responsibility for education delivery and … The goal is to create a system of competency-based, nationally standardized TVET qualifications that are aligned with international standards. Meaning and Definition of Population Education: Most of the people agree ‘Population Education’ with education of the population. A four-year bachelor’s degree requires the completion of 124 to 136 credit units, whereas a master’s degree typically requires 30 credits (either 30 credits of coursework or 24 credits of coursework and 6 credits of thesis, research, or project work). 2013. Tarar believes that education and employment are two of the keys to reducing the population in Pakistan. While there are six Indian institutions included among the top 500 in the current 2020 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, for instance, Quaid-i-Azam University is the only Pakistani institution featured in this group (at position 401–500). Whereas most affiliated colleges teach only undergraduate programs, these colleges offer both undergraduate and graduate programs. Higher Education in Nigeria and the Emergence of Private Universities. (For context, Pakistan’s gross national income per capita was USD$1,590 in 2018). In the near future, only officially registered qualifications may use the “national” designation in the qualification title. A building available will represent 9 % of the complete set of features spent... Homeopathic medicine are licensed professions in Pakistan to 50 minutes of classroom instruction week! 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project of population education in pakistan

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