However, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita was recently detected in the USA (De Ley et al. This species reportedly eats both living and decayed leaves, although it is not considered to be a pest in Florida because it is not abundant. Many interceptions of slugs are made by quarantine inspectors (Robinson 1999), including species not yet found in the USA or restricted to areas of North America other than Florida. A slug that commonly causes damage in Florida is marsh slug, Deroceras laeve (Müller, 1774). It is light brown or reddish brown with a pair of dark dorsolateral stripes extending over the mantle and body (Figures 21–23). This is a very small slug, less than 1 cm long. Catalog of introduced molluscs of eastern North America (north of Mexico). This is the smallest of the common slugs in Florida, weighing only as little as 0.2 g at maturity, but up to 0.8 g. It is brownish or grayish, without spots or stripes, and bears only indistinct markings, often including minute white flecks (Figures 18, 19). Traditionally, the toxicant in such baits is metaldehyde, or sometimes metaldehyde plus a carbamate toxicant, or occasionally a carbamate toxicant alone. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made. (ed.) 1992. It has a very wide host range, including many vegetables and ornamental plants. Indeed, most of the invaders that have established here are warm-weather or tropical species. Vaginulidae in Central America, with emphasis on the bean slug. Florida leatherleaf, Leidyula floridana (Leidy 1851) slugs, with their bodies contracted, showing some of the color variation found in this slug. Some life history traits and diet selection in. Dillon, R. T., Jr. and colleagues 2018. Several potentially damaging slugs have been intercepted in commerce but apparently failed to establish in Florida. . It is native to the Caribbean (Cuba to Jamaica) and southern Florida. Though only 1 cm long at rest, the marsh slug can become more elongate (up to 3 cm) when extended. Most often, this slug appears as in the bottom center, with a pale thin stripe centrally, and two darker stripes dorsolaterally. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables. 3. Figure 6. viewed from below, showing broad foot that covers nearly the entire ventral surface. Therefore, management of slugs in Florida will likely be more of a concern in the future. Lateral view of slug showing the breathing pore (pneumostome) open. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Malacologia 41: 413-438. It can attain a length of 5 cm when extended, but is not a large slug, attaining a weight of about 1.2 g at maturity. Low Price Guarantee. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. On the other hand, following exposure to Snail and Slug Away™, which contains cinnamon oil as the active ingredient, considerable reduction of plant feeding was noted. It occurs in greenhouses and nurseries, where it can be found under potted plants, so it is destined to be spread further with nursery stock. The foot is nearly as wide as the body (Figure 11). Finally, although not labeled for management of molluscs, incidental benefits of copper hydroxide fungicide are well documented. Florida has only a few terrestrial slug species that are native (indigenous), but some non-native (nonindigenous) species have successfully established here. Biology and control of the leatherleaf slug. 2002. The eggs initially are transparent but become yellowish as they mature, usually hatching in twop to three weeks (Faberi et al. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information. While there is also an apple snail native to Florida, the non-native species tends to be more common. Boric acid and sulfur-based products have been less effective in the small number of studies that have been conducted. Formerly found only in southern and central Florida, it has since been spread to northernmost Florida, and also is found in Louisiana, Texas, and northeastern Mexico, suggesting either that the species is more widespread than previous records indicated or that it is being relocated via commerce. Common Fresh Water Pond Snails (Europe or US Native Species) A bright red ramshorn snail. Body rather flattened in cross-section, and tapering laterally (toward the sides); breathing pore (pneumostome) not visible (Figures 15–18); foot considerably narrower than width of body (Figures 8, 9) - Family Veronicellidae, the leatherleaf slugs. Common Name: Florida Cone. Giant African Land Snail. (Figure 7c). Also know as the Roman snail or Burgundy snail, this common garden snail is widely distributed in Europe. Exhibit Area. The anal slit (Figure 12) usually is visible, extending beyond the right edge of the retracted foot. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. Distinguishing Characteristics: Shell can be dull white, grey and brown, occasionally speckled with white or brown spots. Slug & Snail Defense™ contains a mixture of plant essential oils and pepper, but in tests with Leidyula floridana there was no protection of leaf material. . Some slugs deposit fecal-like material with their eggs, but the reason for this behavior is unknown. Mating, and egg-laying behavior in the Limacidae (Mollusca). For queries involving invertebrates, contact Amy Benson. IDENTIFYING LAND SNAILS Brian Eversham Version 2.1 February 2016 This key is an updated, expanded and illustrated version of one I first produced in July 1999 and have amended several previous training workshops. For queries involving fish, please contact Matthew Neilson. 1999. . Slugs are snails without a visible shell (some have an internal shell and a few have a greatly reduced external shell). Getz LL. † Populations may not be currently present. . Notes on the ecology of slugs: Henderson I, Triebskorn R. 2002. . Natural Enemies of Terrestrial Molluscs. More recently, baits with iron-based toxicants such as iron phosphate and sodium ferric EDTA have been shown to be effective toxicants when applied to slug and snails, and are safer to use. 2(1). 1993) Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Damage by Deroceras laeve often goes undiagnosed because like all slugs, they feed only at night. Common Name: Florida cerith. Benson, A.J., and C.R. Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. It is very difficult to distinguish from Florida leatherleaf slug. These slugs can attain a weight of 12 grams and measure over 5 cm in length. 2'. Mantle covering all of the back (dorsum) of the animal, or nearly so, or saddle-like mantle structure not apparent in anterior region when body is extended (Figures 15–18); breathing pore (pneumostome) not visible or located anteriorly (toward the head) on right margin of mantle (although it may be closed) (Figure 7) . Cornu aspersum (syn. Figure 22. 1) Ramshorn Pond Snail (Planorbidae) Named because their shell is shaped much like a ramâs horn, the ramshorn snail breaths air via a lung and through their skin. In Florida, it is established only in the Pensacola area. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Euglandina rosea, a common predator of snails and slugs in Florida. 1). In the United States, the Pacific and Atlantic coastal areas are prime regions for slugs and snails, with the Pacific Northwest, tropical and subtropical Hawaii, and Florida especially hard hit. 2014. These are effective, but quite toxic, and they pose a threat to non-target organisms such as pets and vertebrate wildlife. Only recently, New Guinea flatworm, Platydemus manokwari De Beauchamp, 1963 (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Geoplanidae) was found in Florida. Slugs can be quite long-lived, surviving for a year or more. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Slugs benefit from having shelter such as plant debris, so removal of boards, rubbish, piles of brush, and other debris will help limit slug numbers. It also is known from several of the islands in the Caribbean region and from Costa Rica. Figure 5. Marsh slug, Deroceras laeve (Müller, 1774), grayish morph. Medium- to large-sized tropical freshwater snails. 4 pp. Snails were brought to the U.S. from Europe in the 1850, with the idea that they would be a food, like they are over there. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Especially in juveniles, their body may bear two dorsolateral stripes extending from behind the antennae backward along the body, though they are rather diffuse. Bailey SER. The slug also burrows in soft soil and can enter the root-balls of plants through drainage holes at the base of the containers. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 80: 399-406. Figure 14. Young slugs may feed only on the surface of vegetation but larger slugs remove entire sections of foliage, leaving irregular holes in foliage, flowers, and other soft plant tissue. This slug occurs widely in the eastern USA, but in Florida it is documented only from Marion County. If possible, it is a good idea to irrigate prior to bait application because the additional moisture will stimulate increased slug activity, increasing the likelihood that they will eat the bait. Garcia EN, Thomé JW, Castillejo J. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. It has been relocated to other parts of the world, including Hawaii, India and many islands in the Pacific region, in an attempt to control invasive snails such as giant African land snail, Achatina fulica (Férussac, 1821). These slugs deposit their eggs in a spiral. However, development of chemicals and research on biological control (i.e., potential predators and parasites) have been done mostly outside of the USA, and options for management are more limited than with insects. Photograph by John L. Capinera, University of Florida. Native to East Africa, the giant snails were first imported to this country as pets and educational props in 1966. Often it is necessary to use a combination of external traits (morphology), internal anatomy (especially reproductive structures), and even molecular diagnoses (DNA analysis) for species-level determinations. Some effects of copper-based fungicides on plant-feeding terrestrial molluscs: A role for repellents in mollusc management. This attribute likely explains the presence of marsh slug in Florida but the absence of gray field slug. Karlin EJ, Bacon C. 1961. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. 468 pp. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. Early references refer to this species either as Angustipes ameghini (Gambetta, 1923) or Veronicella ameghini Gambetta, 1923. Accessed [12/8/2020]. No serious economic damage has been reported thus far from Florida although they feed readily on both crop and ornamental plants, and can be a nuisance. Several slugs found in Florida have yet another mantle arrangement, wherein the entire dorsal surface is covered with the mantle. This species is tropical and amphibious, having both lungs and gills, making it easy to survive dry periods and seasons, where it burrows under the mud (Burch, 1982; Dillon, R. T., Jr. and colleagues 2018). Diagram of extended (above) and contracted (below) slugs, with key morphological features labeled. White-McLean J, Capinera JL. Drawing on left (a) illustrates genital pore not adjacent to foot, near center of hyponotum; drawing in center (b) shows genital pore adjacent to foot, at the edge of the hyponotum; and drawing on right (c) shows tip of foot being lifted to expose anal slit. However, nonindigenous slugs are increasing in visibility and importance as pests. In addition to threatening some native molluscs, it also is a host of rat lungworm. They are brown in color and have a striped pattern. A review of the Veronicellidae from Mexico (Gastropoda: Soleolifera). The slug shown below (c) has the mantle covering 2/3 of its body, but the anterior (head) region is exposed. However, this slug can be somewhat variable in appearance, and sometimes is fairly pale or mostly dark. This slug can grow to weigh 8 g, though it becomes sexually mature and begins egg production when it is about 3 g. This species feeds on fungi. Ridges on mantle forming fingerprint-like pattern that is centered dorsally (Figures 22, 23) - Family Limacidae, the keelback slugs. Despite the name 'keelback' being applied to this family, this species shows little or no evidence of a keel (dorsal ridge on the tail). Florida is home to several species of Pomacea apple snails including one native species, the Florida apple snail, and four exotics native to South America. . Figure 10. It has been intercepted in Florida and apparently is established in Santa Barbara County, California. Also, when sprayed directly on Leidyula floridana slugs, Snail & Slug Away caused rapid mortality. The eggs are deposited in small clusters (often six to 10, but up to 33) in soil or organic detritus. Diagram of slugs, showing two types of mantles, and alternate positions of the breathing pore (the arrow points to pore) relative to mid-point of mantle. Common throughout the Florida peninsula up to the Suwannee River Drainage, and sporadically west from the Suwannee into the panhandle to the Choctawhatchee River Drainage and north into Georgia in to the Flint and Ocmulgee River Drainages (Thompson 1984); Cuba; Hispanola (Dundee 1974). Smith said the snails lay an average of about 20 to 30 eggs at a time, and can lay eggs up to 30 times a year. Slugs at top (a,b) have the mantle located only anteriorly. Like the more common forms, it is a large slug, attaining up to 8 g in weight and 10 cm in length. Biology, Nutritional Ecology, and Natural Enemies of the Slug, Rueda A, Caballero R, Kaminsky R, Andrews KL. Moles and shrews also will feed on slugs. In Florida, it is found from the Keys to Pensacola, and feeds on a great number of plants in cultivated areas as well as in swamps, woodlands, and around human habitations. Among the most interesting of the molluscs are the snails. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data. Slugs tend to have omnivorous dietary habits. Figure 17. However, many species can be identified with a reasonable degree of confidence if you collect several individuals so you can assess their variation, and it is also usually necessary to collect adults. Florida leatherleaf, Leidyula floridana (Leidy, 1851), with body extended. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. The Carolina mantleslug is a native species, found from Maine to Florida, and west to Iowa and Texas. It kills mostly snails, but also slugs. Following is a simple key to the families of slugs found in Florida. Whorls covered with beaded ornamentation and fine threading. Giant African Snails (Lissachatina fulica) From Mariana Islands, North Pacific Ocean, 1950. Two products have recently become available, both based on essential oils extracted from plants. Elsewhere, pancake slug is found throughout the Caribbean, and some islands in the Pacific, including Hawaii. M. indica. Figure 12. One species occurs naturally in Florida, and three others have been introduced. Thus, at least in some species, a single individual can inseminate another slug, can be inseminated by another, and can even inseminate itself! Native and Invasive Land Snails. Florida is known for fighting invasive species. Capinera JL, Dickens K. 2016. The family contains many genera and numerous species in South America, Central America, Mexico, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 78: 41-50. Molluscs are a very diverse group, with at least 85,000 species named, and estimates of up to 200,000 species occurring worldwide. Note that there are two pairs of tentacles, with the larger, upper pair bearing visual organs. The Florida crown conch (Melongena corona) is a small- to medium-sized marine snail frequently found on oyster reefs. Some slugs thrive in disturbed habitats linked to human activity (anthropogenic), establishing the potential to become pests of agricultural or ornamental plants. In addition to the many potential invasive slugs originating in temperate climates such as Europe, the traditional source of invasive molluscs for the USA, Florida is also quite susceptible to invasion by slugs from warmer climates. They occur in both aquatic (marine and fresh-water) and terrestrial environmentâ¦ Interesting Facts: Also known as the Dark Cerith. The snail was found by a gastropod enthusiast in Miami, who sent it to the University of Florida, which identified it. Other nematodes found in the USA have been investigated for slug control, but the results were not encouraging. Due to its small size and preferred habitat (deciduous woodlands) it may well be more broadly distributed, but overlooked. Its background color is whitish or tan, but it bears numerous black spots. Island apple snail is a valid common name for the species, but Armstrong says he now refers to the species in Alabama as the maculata apple snail for specificity. Ridges on mantle forming fingerprint-like pattern that is not centered dorsally, rather being offset slightly to the right side of the animal - Family Agrolimacidae
Superficially, most slugs appear to be quite similar, with a naked, unsegmented body covered by mucus and bearing two pairs of tentacles anteriorly, one of which bears the eyes (Figures 1, 6). Eggs are not very resistant to desiccation, so they must remain in fairly humid environments, and absorb some water, if hatching is to be successful. Euglandina rosea prefers snails to slugs, but will attack and consume small slugs in the absence of snail prey. According to the University of Florida, there are two common garden snails in the state â the garden Zachrysia and the Banded Caracol. Maximum size 1 inch. Foliar injury to a Madagascar periwinkle (vinca) plant (left) caused by Deroceras laeve slugs and, for comparison, an undamaged plant of the same age growing nearby (right). In addition, there may be two rows of dark spots along the back (dorsum) (Figure 10). . Slugs benefit from having shelter such as plant debris, so removal of boards, rubbish, piles of brush, and other debris will help limit slug numbers. Mantle consisting of an elevated saddle-like structure that is apparent when the body is extended, and located only in the anterior region of the body (Figures 19–23); breathing pore (pneumostome) present (although it may be closed) posteriorly (away from the head) on right margin of mantle (Figure 7) . However, within a slug family there can be considerable uncertainty about correct identifications and speciation. The management tools for slugs are much the same as used in the integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for other invertebrate pests such as insects. The pancake slug is large, often 5–12 cm in length, and usually very pale, ranging from whitish to tan or speckled with brown spots. 1984. The variation in appearance among individual slugs makes it very difficult to identify some species with great certainty, especially when working with individual specimens. The verocellid slugs of Florida (Gastropoda: Veronicellidae) Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Entomology Circular 261. Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Nematoda: Rhabditida) a slug-parasitic nematode, is used in Europe to control slugs, has not been allowed in the USA because of concern about introducing a non-native organism. Clench, W.J. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. Their mouth contains a rasping structure called a radula, which bears tooth-like features, but these are internal and not generally visible. This slug (also known as threeband garden slug) is larger than Deroceras laeve, attaining a length of 5–7 cm, although it begins reproduction when considerably smaller, about 2.5 cm long and 1.2 g in weight. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. The breathing pore (pneumostome) is located in a lightly pigmented anterior right area of mantle (Figures 12, 13). 1966. Rosy Wolf Snail (Euglandina rosea) From Gulf Co., Florida, 1983. The primary differences between the two families are based on soft anatomy. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. Slugs also reduce water loss by opening their breathing pore (pneumostome) only periodically instead of having it open continuously. The genital pore is located adjacent to the foot (Figure 8), normally less than 1/4 hyponotal width (the hyponotum is the portion of the mantle that wraps beneath the slug body and is adjacent to the foot) from the foot. The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. Sometimes it is found in lawns (Walls 2009) and disturbed areas near homes, such as drainage ditches. They also have regulatory significance, interfering with movement of potted plants, because locations lacking slugs are not eager to be inoculated with these potentially damaging species. Is Veronicella cubensis ( L. Pfeiffer, 1840 ), not extended Henderson... Has axially ( vertically ) oriented brown streaks tentacles, with a of... Pore ; slug ' b ' shows posterior location hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens on... And they pose a threat to non-target organisms such as pets and vertebrate wildlife horn! Be dull white, grey and brown, often circled with lines composed of dashes euglandina rosea prefers snails slugs. Quarantine importance in the Pensacola area repellents in mollusc management non-target organisms such as insects, became. 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