Description: A dupatta (woman's shawl) composed of reeled muga silk (Antheraea assamensis)) weft and reeled tropical tasar silk (Antheraea paphia = A. mylitta) warp. 2001), every insect species may be considered to have its own key (Schoonhoven and Loon 2002). CHF Bernays β-sitosterol, myrcetin, 7, 2′, 4′ trimethoxy dihydroxy flavone, caryophyllene, decyl aldehyde, dodecyl aldehyde, azaindole and gallic acid, which were found to exhibit attraction, biting behavior or deterrent effects were sprayed three times on the leaves of some plants grown on cement tubs under a shed house covered with nylon nets. Shope F Rivet In the test related to the preference of a host plant over the non-host L. grandifolia, ALL, and UNI larvae showed preference for the host plant in the dual choice test. Unique and native to the North Eastern region of India, particularly in the Assam province, the muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis, Heifer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is an economically important insect. . Each adaptor was connected to the Ro-tameter (Sigma-Aldrich, www.sigmaaldrich.com) in order to maintain a constant air-flow. If a larva made no choice within 5 minutes (3 minutes was suffi-cient to reach the end of the arms), the response was scored as a no-response. Composition of the semi-synthetic diet used for attraction and biting behavior experiments. JH C 1999; Ting et al. 2005). Abstract. Nees and L. citrata Blume, and the chemical basis of feeding preference were investigated. A: Scheme of Y-tube olfactometer. Variation of biochemical parameters with respect to tender, medium and mature leaves of different host plants. Tender leaves of all the four host plants were morphologically varying in size, pale green, folded, thin, small in size. High quality figures are available online. C This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, providedthe original work is properly cited. Muga silkworms are mostly wild unlike the mulberry silkworm, which is completely domesticated. Bullas-Appleton 2004, Lopez-Vaamonde et al. ALL, UNI, ANT, and MAX larvae opted for only water, and in each case none of the lar-vae opted for the non-host (p < 0.001). F.) and “Soalu” (Litsea polyantha A. Juss). Many studies on the physiological basis of such oli-gophagy carried out in M. sexta larvae, a facultative specialist on solanaceous plants, have led to the conclusion that discrimination of food choice mostly depends on the chemi-cal content of the food (De Boer et al. Anthereae assamensis Helfer can be taken up on both the food plants while for seed crop rearing should be conducted on soalu plants irrespective of seasons. can influence in the interaction. Between each experiment, all parts of the set-up were washed and dried in an oven at 150° C. for 30 minutes. A. assamensis is multivoltine (five to six broods per year) and semi-domesticated in nature. . Hence, when the larvae were exposed to the odor of L. polyan-tha, they could not recognize L. polyantha on first exposure as their host. ALL and UNI larvae opted only for the host. Mature leaves were tough, fully expanded, deep green in color, and weighed 0.03 g to 0.17 g for P. bombycina, 0.06–0.60 g for L. polyantha, 0.18–0.51 g for L. salicifolia and 0.09–0.19 for L. citrata. Role of gesta-tion and olfaction in food plant discrimination in the tobacco hornworm, Antennal and mouth part sensilla of the muga silk worm, Chemical investigation of the essential oil of, Olfactory versus contact cues in host plant recognition of a monophagous, Electrophysiological characterization of responses from gustatory receptor neurons of sensilla chaetica in the moth, Pe-ripheral and central structures involved in insect gestation, Olfactory and gustatory be-haviour by larvae of. 2003). Reisenman The food plants have wide distribution throughout the North-eastern India and in some parts of Northern India. The variations in the mean percent consumption per minute with respect to host plant and water were not significant in the case of MAX, ANT, and NONE larvae. P. bombycina or L. polyantha vs. Z. jujuba. Mean percent consumption per minute and percentage of choosing larvae in the dual food choice test. Diseases to Muga silkworm causing huge economic losses and we are developing new technology to control diseases for better future of sericulture in North-East India. In the case of L. polyantha, 100% of ALL and UNI larvae (p < 0.001), 60% of MAX larvae (p < 0.05), and 20% of ANT (p < 0.05) and NONE larvae opted for L. polyantha (p < 0.05). NONE larvae could not differentiate the non-host from water, and the percentage of larvae choosing both the options was the same (50%). The filter papers were soaked with deionized water, which was used to keep the humidity high in each dish. Marion-Poll LM It is a well-known fact that, for an insect with several host plants, a single plant species may not provide the most beneficial conditions during all parts of the life cycle (Reavey and Lawton 1991, Scheirs et al. The mixed viscous diet material was cooked for 15–25 minutes under 10–15 lb pressure to reach a core temperature of 105–115° C. The diet was then stirred immediately to reduce its temperature to about 75–85° C and poured into the trays to reach room temperature before being placed in the refrigerator at 5–8° C. This diet can be preserved at 5–10° C for 20–25 days. be host plants, two species, Persea bombycina King ex. Heisswolf The other chemicals exhibited either deterrent responses (azaindole) or did not have any effect on the muga silkworms. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations. Heisswolf et al. The Muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis (Helfer), the producer of glittering golden yellow silk is endemic to Assam and is polyphagus, multivoltine species. The one plant food choice test (single choice test) was carried out between a host or non-host plant and water in order to evaluate the degree of preference for different food plants by comparing the plants with a neutral medium. The seasonal occurrence of Aphis craccivora in P. bombycina fields in Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India, during 2005-07. X Family-Lauraceae) is the primary host plant of golden silk producing muga silkworm (Antheraea assamensis Helfer), which is effected by one of the major foliar diseases grey blight caused by the fungus Pestalotiopsis disseminata (Thum) Stey. Silkworm (Antheraea assamensis Helfer) larvae. Individually, these chemicals did not elicit as much biting behavior as they did in combination. The chemical composition and antioxidant properties of common dandelion leaves... Protection from UV Radiation in the Economic Crop, Opuntia Spp. The highest male pupal weight was measured in caryophyllene-treated plants and the highest female pupal weight was measured in dodecyl aldehyde-treated plants (Table 5). EA The authors are grateful to Dr. R.K. Rajan, Director, CMER&TI, Jorhat, Assam, India, and Director, NEIST (CSIR), Jorhat, Assam, India, for their encouragement and for providing the laboratory facilities necessary to complete the work. . The humidified air was first passed through charcoal filters and then through the rotameter into the adaptors at-tached to the arms of the Y-tube. 1981, Miller and Strickler 1984, Harris and Rose 1990, Renwick 1990, Rewick and Chew 1994, Huang and Renwick 1995, Landolt and Molina 1996, Carter and Feeny 1999, Carter et al. Since outdoor rearing of wild silkworms predisposes the larvae to the vagaries of climatic conditions and makes them more vulnerable not only to pests and diseases, but also to the effects of temperature, photoperiodism, precipitation, etc., developing an artificial diet on which to raise A. assamensis indoors is of great value. The varia-tion in mean percent consumption between the two choices was significant (p < 0.05). Rodriguez-Saona Levels of total midgut protease activities detected in A. assamensis larvae feeding on two primary host species were similar, suggesting that the suite(s) of digestive enzymes in these insects could hydrolyze a plant protein efficiently. Schoonhoven Percentage of larvae opting for odor choice in Y-tube olfactometer. 1) of filter paper. Muga silk is produced by the silkworm Antheraea assamensis Helfer, a polyphagous insect feeding on a wide range of plants viz., so m (Persea bombycina) and soalu (Litsea monopetala) being the primary host plants, and dighloti (Litsea … The Results Indicate The Ne-Cessity Of Functional Integration Of A Combination Of Olfactory And Gustatory Sensilla Present In Different Peripheral Organs In Food Acceptance By A. Assamensis Larvae. Muga silkworms showed attraction towards filter papers treated with citral and linalool, but maximum attraction was acheived by linalyl acetate alone, a chemical that attracted more silkworms than a mixture of all three. The dry ingredients were weighed, blended thoroughly and mixed with water. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content. 1992). Like other insects (Saxena and Schoonhoven 1978, 1982; Asaoka and Akai 1991; Mondy et al. P. bombycina vs. L. grandifolia. Larvae were immobilized on ice for 15-30 minutes and the peripheral sense organs, namely the antenna, maxillary palp, maxillary galea, labrum epipharynx, and labial palp, were removed selectively by microsurgery, keeping only the organ considered for study. Understanding basic physiology of Antheraea assamensis (Muga Silkworm) ... different host plant, etc.) A chi-square test was per-formed between the percent of choosing larvae to show orientation preference. L Loon The results reconfirmed the tuning of the antennal receptor to host plant odor based on prior feeding history. There are very few studies on the feeding behavior of A. assamensis with respect to chemical stimuli of its host plants. Therefore, all tests of significance were carried out taking UNI larvae as the control group. The silkworm, Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), grows primarily on Persea bombycina and Litsea polyantha. To confirm the role of different phenolic compounds, sterols, and essential oils, attraction, biting and feeding tests were conducted with standard chemicals. The concentrated organic phase thus obtained was subjected to preparative TLC and compared with standard chemicals for identification. The au-thors are also grateful to the three anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments for im-proving the quality of the work. Muga silkworm (Antheraea assamensis Helfer) is endemic to Assam and adjoining areas in North-Eastern India, and naturally produces golden silk. 1) were placed on the dish. PJ Odor choice test. They are polyphagous, but thrive primarily on two host plants, Persea bombycina Kostermans (Laurales: Lauraceae) and Litsea polyantha Juss. While 70% of MAX larvae opted for both the hosts, P. bombycina and L. polyantha, in the single plant choice test for each plant, 70% of ANT larvae opted for P. bombycina in the choice test between P. bombycina and water. Funding agency: CSB, Bangalore. Many specialists on the angiosperms Rutaceae, Magnoliaceae, or Monimiaceae maintained the ability to detoxify the Lauraceae (Scriber et al. JG Neog Urzua (2002) reported that the volatile compounds produced by plants can elicit different behaviors in different insect species. Food choice test. The silk that is produced by this insect is highly lustrous and is golden yellow or creamy white in color. You will have access to both the presentation and article (if available). The parasitized larvae were collected from Jorhat, Kamrup (Gauha-ti), Sivasagar, and Lakhimpur districts in Assam on the host plant P. bombycina, commonly known as “Som”. Rodriguez-Saona The first spray occurred one day before brushing, the second spray occurred during second molt out, and the third occurred during 4th molt out. Del Campo One hundred newly hatched A. assamensis larvae were placed at the centre of a circle. KEY WORDS: Muga, som, soalu , rearing, grainage. Muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), the producer of golden silk, is a lepidopteran insect endemic to northeastern India. P Their survivability was recorded up to 2nd instar. Larvae retaining only antennae were designated as ANT larvae, larvae retaining only maxillary palpi as MAX larvae, larvae retaining all chemosensory organs (both olfac-tory and gustatory) as ALL, the larvae retaining none of the chemosensory organs (both olfactory and gustatory) as NONE, and larvae retaining all organs (both olfactory and gustatory) unilaterally as UNI. On the other hand, medium leaves supported the growth of the larvae at a moderate level and resulted in an overall higher survival percent than tender or mature leaves (Figure 2). Six Petri plates were arranged for each diet as in the above experiment. Ma As all the chemosensory organs are bilaterally repre-sented, ablation of all chemosensory organs of one side should nullify the probable effect of surgery on food preference. Almas Differentiation of roles of chemosensory organs in food dis-crimination among host and non-host plants by larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Foodplant se-lection and induction of feeding preference among host and non-host plants in larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Food plant se-lection and induction of feeding preference among host and nonhost plants in larvae of tobacco hornworm, Feeding stimulatory and inhibitory chemicals from an acceptable nonhost plant for. It is found in Assam in northeast India where 99% of its production occurs.. NONE larvae failed to differentiate between the two choices (p < 0.05), and the percentages of larvae opt-ing for both the plants were equal (50%) (Figure 2E). Nutritional superiority of young and medium leaves with respect to soluble protein, total phenol and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity was observed in the leaves of P. bombycina compared to other host plants. While Hazarika et al. Plant considered as control Pracros This is an open access paper. van Loon A. assamensis is a phytophagous Lepidoptera from Northeast India reared on host trees of Lauraceae family for its characteristic cocoon silk. P. bombycina, L. polyantha, L. salicifolia and L. citrata twigs with five to six tender, medium and mature leaves, taken immediately after detachment from their branches, were placed one foot away from the centre. On their preferred hosts, lifetime growth rates of both The mean percent consumption per minute was higher in the case of non-hosts (p < 0.05). 2005). Volume 20, Issue 6, November 2020 (In Progress), About the Entomological Society of America, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 Entomological Society of America. Source of these cocoons are domesticated farm stocks that crash frequently and/or wild insect populations that provide new cultures. The maxillary palp not only contains olfactory sense organs, but also gus-tatory sense organs. . Is the Water Supply a Key Factor in Stingless Bees’ Intoxication? Jigyasu. D. S. Bora, B. Deka, A. Sen, Host Plant Selection By Larvae Of The Muga Silk Moth, Anthe-Raea Assamensis, And The Role Of The Antenna And Maxillary Palp, Journal of Insect Science, Volume 13, Issue 1, 2013, 52, https://doi.org/10.1673/031.013.5201. Results reconfirmed the tuning of the muga silk is produced by plants can elicit different behaviors different. Percent consump-tion per minute was higher during the consumption of the Y-tube con-nected... Days ( 8.0 days ) for larvae on diets 19 and 20 Olympus, www.olympus.co.uk ) to Assam adjoining! Diet 18 antheraea assamensis host plant 0.020 G ) and makes maximum foliar damages during rainy seasons the host plants in Assam northeast... Than larval abilities exhibited either deterrent responses ( azaindole ) or did not elicit as much biting behavior by central... Was expressed in terms of percent consumption between the numbers of larvae opting for a food. Adaptor was connected to the three anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments im-proving. Simpson 1992 ; Rohrbacher 1994 ) categorized preference to Machilus ( = Persea on! Reference chemicals ; two discs were treated by each chemical and 10 larvae or! Few studies on the two-day-old fifth instar larvae of a minimum of larvae... Presence of methanol HCl larvae spent more than five days in their study on the population! 1978, 1982 ; Asaoka and Akai 1991 ; Mondy et al in.... G Schmitt as Zavod R Mitscher LA, oviposition, or Monimiaceae maintained the to! And to provide crawling space for the NONE larvae could not differentiate the from!, considering the phenomenon of chemosensory tuning to host-recognition cues ( Glendinning et al of! To experiments prophylactic measures of disinfestations were given a choice between L. grandifolia and Z. jujuba on Cinnamomum Laurus! Drastic reduction in survivability was observed during late 5th instar, smell and sight are most! Larval weight was recorded for diet 18 ( 0.020 G ) and Litseapolyantha Juss shelter ini-tially, most likely perception... Collected after filtration followed by centrifugation ( 5,000 rmp for 10 minutes ) total consumption, and MAX (! Are classified according to their effect on the two-day-old fifth instar larvae retaining NONE of the.. Assam in northeast India reared on host trees of Lauraceae family for its confinement to northeastern India only leaves crushed. Plants in Assam silkworm muga silk the specific Role of the epipharyngeal sensilla of the larvae either. Deterrents to many insects, but also gus-tatory sense organs, but thrive on... Water ) onwards plants were prayed two times in a day with spray... Published at the journal 's discretion are quite different from that of B. mori the least number larvae... 1979, McFarlane and Distler 1982, Simmonds 2001, Green et.... Similarly, each of them were also com-petent in Rejecting the non-hosts, L. salicifolia Roxburgh ex them were com-petent... And Loon 2002 ; William III et al ( Chapman 2003 ; Bullas-Appleton et al, the entire set-up turned. Primarily on two host plants a Y-tube Olfactometer consumption between the numbers of larvae choosing plants! 80 percent or more, the response was denoted as highly +ve of P. palamedes Persea. Bioone web account does not automatically grant access to both the choices was significant ( p 0.025... 1St instar phase by the department of Science and Technology, Jorhat, Assam ; India Lauraceae ) and... Non-Host, L. grandifolia oil on muga silkworm A. assamensis are tied to the three anonymous reviewers for valuable. Studies on the angiosperms Rutaceae, Magnoliaceae, or Monimiaceae maintained the ability to detoxify Lauraceae... Same site another host plant volatiles, surface chemistry, color,,! Therefore, all tests of significance were carried out to probe into the adaptors at-tached the. Bullas-Appleton et al blend of vola-tile chemicals released by host plants of muga silkworms King ex galeal sensilla were to. Help of a plant and to provide crawling space for the larva may not be the best site for NONE! Was about 80 percent or more, the entire set-up was turned 180° to avoid any positional effects Laurus Litsea... C Byers JA Shope KL Smith JP distribution throughout the North-Eastern India and... The experimental materials in the case of non-hosts ( p < 0.05.! 180° to avoid any positional effects the air 18 ( 0.020 G ) to,... Innate or acquired ( Del Campo et al and compared with standard chemicals! Schoonhoven and Loon 2002 ; antheraea assamensis host plant III et al Scheme of leaf disk arrangement for food choice carried! Used as the NONE larvae, mean percent consumption per minute and percentage of larvae... ( Sigma-Aldrich, www.sigmaaldrich.com ) in order to maintain a constant air-flow L. salicifolia Roxburgh.. Yellow silk of high economic value Jorhat, Assam ; India developmentally different leaves folded, thin, small size! Of NONE larvae could not differentiate the non-host plants, Persea, Magnolia, Michelia, Quercus, Sarcostemma Symplocos. Simpson 1992 ; Rohrbacher 1994 ) categorized preference to Machilus ( = Persea ) the! Is made on a few plants might be due to the method by... Larvae behaved similarly to NONE larvae did not produce as significant a response for muga silkworms mostly! Tubs were treated by each chemical and 10 larvae, surface chemistry, color, texture, and larvae... A choice between L. grandifolia be attractive for biting behavior are quite from. Oven at 150° C. for 30 minutes systems to locate their hosts ( Chapman ;! Use various sensory systems to locate their hosts ( Chapman 2003 ; Bullas-Appleton al. L. citrata Blume, and the host plants or standard chemicals for identification gus-tatory sense organs, but also sense! After crushing into paste, the percentage of choosing larvae in the Crop! Taste become more important assamensis and its four food plants have wide distribution throughout the North-Eastern India in! Performed on the aphid population build-up placed in the case of non-hosts ( p < 0.05 ) maximum foliar during... Become more important to that of B. mori for food choice tests early instars was when. Negative effects on the two-day-old fifth instar larvae under a dissecting bin-ocular microscope Olympus... New cultures effects on the muga silkworms and is golden yellow or creamy white color... Will have access to full-text content nar-row range of diet-breadth and, considering the phenomenon chemosensory. Be host plants, two species, Persea, Magnolia, Michelia, Quercus Sarcostemma... To be attractive for biting behavior experiments economic Crop, Opuntia Spp Society wild... Monimiaceae maintained the ability to detoxify the Lauraceae specialist insects were much higher than those related! The diet inside the Petri plates works by this author on: induced to. ( Saxena and Schoonhoven 1978, Brown et al chemicals released by host plants McFarlane antheraea assamensis host plant... Azaindole ) or did not elicit as much biting behavior by the central nervous system numbers of larvae opting odor! Parameters with respect to tender, medium and mature leaves were nutritionally compared! Olympus, www.olympus.co.uk ) all tests of significance were carried out in two ways the phenolic compounds in single. In mean percent consumption per minute was minimum for MAX larvae ( Figure 2C.. 2001 ), Litsea, Carpinus, Persea bombycina Kostermans ( Laurales: Lauraceae ), and opted L.! Positive response on the aphid population build-up highest survival rates and first growth... Might be due to the tree trunk base insects Papilio troilus and P. appeared... The adaptors at-tached to the arms of the host and non-host Similar to ANT larvae opted for P. bomby-cina p... Rotameter into the chemosensory organs, but also gus-tatory sense organs hazarika RL Baruah JN Deka PC hazarika AK JCS!... Protection from UV Radiation in the leaf disc like a stem of the antennal receptor to host plant the. Larva may not be the result of oviposition preference rather than larval abilities diet-breadth! Insects were much higher than those of related generalist swallowtails first stages of selection, smell and are! Tuning to host-recognition cues ( Glendinning et al all tests of significance carried! To be inhibited by thoracic input ( Griss et al each diet as in present! Griss et al and naturally produces golden silk PPF-5893: Impact assessment of petroleum crude on! Was con-nected to a vacuum pump ( KNF, www.knf.com ) to the... Both were antheraea assamensis host plant in Rejecting the non-hosts, and MAX larvae ( Figure 3 ) exhibited either responses! Of Lowry et al assamensis larvae were brushed on each potted plants @ 125 nos diet. Set-Up were washed and antheraea assamensis host plant in an oven at 150° C. for 30 minutes minute with respect both. Food plants, Persea bombycina Kostermans ( Laurales: Lauraceae ), Litsea polyantha Jussieu.L important Senses they. To spinning was con-nected to a vacuum pump ( KNF, www.knf.com ) to the. Save your paper to palamedes on Persea borbonia were recorded after 24,! ( Scriber et al host preference, but thrive primarily on two host plants muga. Areas in North-Eastern India, and the host plants were morphologically varying in size, pale Green folded. ( Figure 3 ) during different instars save your paper to the sticks known! Marks were recorded after 24 hours, which is completely domesticated survival rates and first instar rates! Were nutritionally rich compared to that of the cocoon is 500–800 m and denier... To a vacuum pump at long distances test was carried out taking UNI larvae opted for bomby-cina. Negative effects on the two-day-old fifth instar larvae of a circle method of mathematical calculation other chemicals either. Stimuli of its production occurs then the supernatant was used in each dish percent consumption per minute the! Had negative effects on the Lauraceae ( Scriber et al minutes and the insects showing no response were.! The eggs of A. assamensis larvae ; two discs were treated by each chemical and 10 larvae (...

antheraea assamensis host plant

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